Recently, the European Commission has presented a draft of a single European visa information system (VIS), which has been working on the development of more than six months. According to the plan of the European commissioners, the WSI will solve two main tasks: "to combat illegal immigration to Europe and to simplify the entry of law-abiding foreigners into its territory." While the project does not have legal force – it still has to be coordinated in the European Parliament. According to analysts, most of all questions will be caused by its ethical side.
The visa information system (or "smart gate") is a single European visa data bank, to which the national immigration services of the EU countries will provide. From here, the consulates will be able to quickly obtain data on persons applying for AirAsia opens flights to Hanoi to the EU countries. For law-abiding citizens, such a system will simplify and speed up the procedure for obtaining documents, and for illegal immigrants it will make it virtually impossible. VIS will contain not only photographs and text information about candidates, but also biometric data (pictures of the iris and fingerprints).
According to Jan de Koester, one of the representatives of the European Commission's legal committee, at the last meeting of the European Commission on January 7, the balance between security interests on the one hand and compliance with the privacy law on the other was found and the final rules of the VIS system are approved. It defines the responsibility of the parties concerned, the conditions and procedures for the exchange of information. True, the public is not yet known details, according to Novye Izvestia. Relative clarity will appear only after the discussion of the reform begins in the European Parliament. The parliamentarians will start it in the near future. In the case of a positive outcome, the VIS will begin to operate only in early 2007.
The Guggenheim Museum in Las Vegas closed
In Las Vegas on May 11, after seven years of operation, the branch of the Guggenheim Museum, located in the Venetian hotel, was closed. In their official message, museum representatives noted that they will continue to cooperate with the hotel, but only as participants in individual projects.
With the closure of the Guggenheim Museum, the only art gallery on Strip Street is the gallery at the Bellagio Hotel, which began to introduce Las Vegas residents to works of art in 1998.
Regions of Russia: Ingushetia
The Republic of Ingushetia is a constituent entity of the Russian Federation and is part of the North Caucasian Federal District. It was formed on June 4, 1992. The capital of the republic is the city of Magas.
Top 10 sights of Ingushetia
1. The Tower of Concord – the highest construction in the republic, is located in the city of Magas.
2. Memorial of Memory and Glory in the city of Nazran was built in memory of the victims of repression and the heroes of various wars.
3. The castle complex Vovnushki XVI-XVII centuries in the Djeyra district – one of the most significant monuments in the mountainous Ingushetia, the finalist of the contest "7 Wonders of Russia."
4. Medieval religious building – Christian Thaba-Erdy temple VIII-XII centuries – one of the oldest Christian churches in Russia.
5. One of the largest castle complexes – Egikal, located in the Targhima basin of Jeyrahsky district at the foot of Tsei-Loam mountain, was the cultural, political and economic center of the Middle Ages.
6. The largest medieval castle complex Targim in the Targum Basin of the Djeyra District is located on the banks of the Assa River, consists of combat, residential, tower structures and solar burial grounds.
7. The medieval castle complex Hamhi includes a variety of tower structures, including the cult place of worship of a pagan deity. It is located in the Targhima basin of the Djeyra district.
8. Erzie – one of the largest medieval castle-type tower villages, located on the tip of the mountain ridge. You can see 5- and 6-storey fighting, semi-hi-tech, residential towers, a long stone defensive wall with wide gates from the late Middle Ages.
9. Sacred in the past Mt. Laam mountain (Mount Canteen, altitude 3080 meters above sea level) is of great interest to tourists, because on its top is located an ancient pagan sanctuary. There are also many different stories and legends associated with it.
10. Mount Tsei-Loam – this is the Ingush Olympus. According to legend, at its top was the deity of Sela – the patron of thunder, lightning and natural phenomena.
Traditions of Ingushetia
Holidays and festivals
March 1 in the Republic of Ingushetia is celebrated the Day of the Dzhigit: young people will have to compete for the official status of the jigit. To do this, you need to go through several Dutch Keukenhof Park will open on March 21: defeat the enemy, raise a heavy stone with one hand, dance the lezgin best.
And on March 8, celebrate the ancient female folklore and ethnographic festival Sesaria Tsei.From year to year, according to the centuries-old tradition, the mourners assembled and performed the dramatization of the once-existing kingdom of their far-away primalaires-Amazons.
On May 1 in Ingushetia, the opening of the summer tourist season is celebrated.
On June 8, the International Combined Combat Tournament "Battle in the Mountains" is held annually.
Every year on June 22, on the day of the Air transportation in Iraq solstice, the "Ascent to the Table Mountain" is held – a folklore festival with theatrical performances.
On the last Sunday of September, the traditional republican folklore and ethnographic harvest festival "Dosho Guire" ("Golden Autumn") is celebrated in towns and villages.
Cuisine of Ingushetia
In the Republic of Ingushetia, several unique dishes are prepared:
What to bring from Ingushetia
From this republic they bring goods from ceramics, leather, wood and glass, from fish skin, from gold and silver.You can also buy on dolls gifts in national costumes. Relatives and friends will be grateful also for tasty and useful honey or collection of medicinal herbs. And somebody will necessarily want to buy a carpet with a national ornament.
Languages in Ingushetia
Residents of the Republic of Ingushetia speak Ingush and Russian.
Religion in Ingushetia
Most of the inhabitants of the region profess Islam and Christianity.
Transport in Ingushetia
In the Republic of Ingushetia there is Magas airport, from where daily flights to Moscow and weekly flights to St. Petersburg take place.
From the Nazran railway station, which belongs to the North Caucasian railway, trains run in the main direction of Nazran-Rostov-Moscow.
From bus station Nazran daily buses go in the directions: Moscow, St. Petersburg, Rostov, Krasnodar, Stavropol, Minvody, Makhachkala, Grozny and other cities.
The largest and most important route of this region is the federal highway Caucasus M-29. Other important transport routes are Luxurious hotel Regis opened in Astana Baku-Rostov road, the Georgian Military Road, which connects Ingushetia with Georgia and Iran.
It is safe to hitchhike in Ingushetia, but this way of traveling is not popular with residents.
Weather in Ingushetia
The climate in the Republic of Ingushetia is moderately continental, high-altitude, depending on the altitude of the location above the sea level. The average temperature in July is +21. + 23 ° С, the average temperature of January is -5 ° С. Precipitation throughout the year is uneven. The greatest number of them falls on the warm half of the year, the maximum – in June-July. The minimum precipitation falls in winter – only about 44 mm. The snow cover is set on average in late December – early January and lasts until the end of March.
The best time to travel to Ingushetia
You can visit Ingushetia throughout the year, but preferably in the period from May to October.
Communications in Ingushetia
In the flat areas, all major cellular operators provide good coverage, and in the mountainous part of Ingushetia, only Beeline and Megafon are available.
Prices in Ingushetia
Prices in Ingushetia are slightly lower than the Russian average.
Geography of Ingushetia
The area of the Republic of Ingushetia is 3.6 thousand square meters. km.In the northern regions, the terrain of the steppe, in the south – mountainous, consisting of ridges, divided by valleys and gorges. In the northern regions there is a part of the Sunzhensky and Alkhanchurtsky valleys, in the central regions – the valleys of the rivers Sunzha and Assa, the southern part of the republic is occupied by the Caucasian mountains.
There are several large water arteries – the Sunzha, Assa, and Armkhi rivers – all of them belong to the Terek basin.
On the territory of the republic there is the Jeyrahsko-Assinsky State Historical, Architectural and Natural Museum-Reserve and the Nature Reserve "Erzi".
Time zone of Ingushetia
Ingushetia is in one time zone with Moscow, that is, the time difference with the Greenwich meridian is +4 hours.
Population of Ingushetia
The total population of the Republic of Ingushetia is 453 thousand people. According to the national composition, local residents are Ingush, Chechens, Russians, etc.
Administrative-territorial structure of Ingushetia
In Ingushetia there are 4 urban districts and 4 municipal districts.
Magas, Nazran, Malgobek, Karabulak
Nazranovsky, Malgobek, Sunzhensky, Dzheirakhsky
History of Ingushetia
Ingush people are people with an ancient and rich history.Anthropologists refer them to the Caucasus anthropological type of a large Caucasian or Caucasian race, which in Russia is called Europeanoid.
For the The beaches of Thailand have become smoke-free zones time the name "Caucasian race" was given to the white race at the beginning of the XIX century by the German scientist IF. Blumenbach. He owned the world's largest collection of skulls, and, when studying them, came to the conclusion that the most ancient representatives of the white race are the Caucasians.
Since the end of the IV millennium BC. the distant ancestors of the Ingush begin to migrate several waves to the Transcaucasus and the Near East. This led to the formation of the Hurrians' civilization there. In the II millennium BC. in the North Caucasus Maikop culture was replaced by its genetic heiress – the North Caucasian culture. Since the end of II millennium BC. on the basis of the North Caucasian culture the Koban culture is being formed, which was spread on the territory from the Argun River in the east to the interfluve of Malki and Kuban in the west.
According to ancient, Georgian and Armenian written sources in the I millennium BC. – I millennium AD. ethnonyms of Malchas, Mahalons, Kavkasians, Hamekites, Durzukas, Gligvens, Dvals, Digors, Colchis, Khalibas, Sanaras, Mahalas, Ganakhs, Khalas, Sierbs,troglodytes, cysts, etc., under which various tribes of distant ancestors of the Ingush were known to various authors at different periods. Often, the ancient authors called the North Caucasian tribes (including the Pra-Ingush tribes) Scythians and Sarmatians. Since the beginning of the I millennium AD. the ethnonym Alans extends to all the Praigush tribes of the North Caucasus.
In IV-V centuries, during the great migration of peoples, the Alans take part in campaigns to Western Europe, and in the tenth century the state of Alan is formed with the capital city of Magas ("City of the Sun"). But already in the first half of the 13th century it was crushed as a result of Mongolian conquests, the territory of Alanya was included in the Golden Horde.
Sources report on the courageous struggle of the Alans against the conquerors. They could not conquer the mountainous part of modern Ingushetia. Alans have preserved their language and culture in the mountains of Ingushetia and the adjacent mountainous regions of Chechnya.
At the end of the 14th century, the Alans were invaded by the troops of the Central Asian conqueror Tamerlane, who penetrated the foothills of Ingushetia in the area of the modern villages of Galashki, Muzhichi, Dattykh, Angusht.
At the beginning of the 15th century the Ingush returned to the plain, settled along the valleys of the rivers Sunzha, Nazran, Kambileevka, Achaluki.But in the second half of the 16th century, as a result of the campaign of the Kabardian prince Temryuk (December 1562), supported by the Nogai Murzas and the Russian Tsar Ivan IV the Terrible, the Ingush once again had to leave the plain and leave for the mountains. In the mountains there are societies based on the territorial principle – shaharas. There is a pre-state structure of public life, based on democratic principles.
The new return of the Ingush to the plain begins in the early 17th century. Migration was along the gorges of the rivers Fortanga, Assa, Armkhi, Terek, Sunzha, Kambileevka. According to the testimony of the Georgian geographer Vakhushti Bagrationi, already in the XVII century in the Tarskoe Valley known large Ingush village of Angusht, from whose name and the Russian ethnonym "Ingush" occurred.
This migration continued until the first half of the XIX century, when the territory of the modern settlement of the Ingush was determined. In March 1770 in the village of Angusht the Ingush signed an agreement with Russia on the Ingush's entry into the subjectship of the Russian Empire. In 1784 near the Ingush village of Zaur-Kov the fortress of Vladikavkaz was founded. In 1810 Nazran fortress was laid in the territory of Nazran.
P.G.Butkov wrote: "First of all, in order to connect the Caucasian line with Georgia, in 1784 a fortress was built by the troop detachment near the Terek, at the entrance to the gorge of the Caucasian mountains, with the Ingushev village of Zaure, and named Vladikavkaz." In 40-60 years of the XIX century, the tsarist administration in the Caucasus conducts the eviction of Ingush from villages located along the rivers of Fortanga, Assa, Sunzha, Kambileevka, renames the villages liberated in this way into villages and populates them with Cossacks. Ingush from these villages were partly evicted to Turkey, partly killed by cold, hunger and disease, the rest settled in other Ingush villages.
In 1860, the military administration of the Caucasus was abolished, and the Kuban and Tersk regions were established in the North Caucasus. The Ingush entered the Ingush District of the Terek Region. In 1871 the Ingush District was merged with the Ossetian District into the Vladikavkaz District. In 1888, Ingushetia was subordinated to the Sunzhensky (Cossack) department of the Terek region. As a result of a stubborn struggle in 1905, the Ingush made it possible to temporarily separate Ingushetia into an independent Nazran District of the Terek Region. In 1909 the Nazran District was legalized.
In November 1917, the Mountain Republic was proclaimed. On December 1, 1917, the provisional Terek government was created. On March 3, 1918, the Terek People's Soviet Republic was proclaimed. From February 1919 to March 1920, the plain Ingushetia was occupied by the army of General A.I. Denikin.
During the revolutions of 1917 and the civil war, the Ingush actively supported the Bolsheviks, believing in their promises of a just solution of the national question. Thousands of Ingush people perished in the struggle for Soviet power during the civil war. General of the White Army AI. Denikin wrote in his memoirs that it was in Ingushetia that his victorious march across Russia was drowned.
In March 1920, the Terek People's Soviet Republic was restored. November 17, 1920 was proclaimed the Mountain Soviet Socialist Republic. Decree of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee of 20 January 1921 created the Gorsky ASSR. In 1921-Montenegro – not exactly Yugoslavia Ingushetia was a part of the Gorsky ASSR. In 1924, in connection with the collapse of the Mountainous ASSR, the Ingush Autonomous Region was established with an administrative center in the city of Vladikavkaz.
In 1929 the Sunzhensky Cossack District, consisting of stanitsas based on the place of Ingush villages, was included in Chechnya.In July 1933, the city of Ordzhonikidze (renamed on the initiative of the Ingush leadership in 1931) was transferred to Ossetia, and in early 1934, without taking into account the opinion of the people, Ingushetia was annexed to Chechnya and the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Region was formed (since 1936 – Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic). With the outbreak of the Great Patriotic War, the Ingush, along with other peoples of the Soviet Union, defended their homeland from the German fascist invaders.
From the very first day of Assistants of tourists on segways appeared in St. Petersburg war, several dozen Ingush participated in the defense of the Brest Fortress. The Ingush took part in the defense of Odessa, the Caucasus, Leningrad, Moscow, in the Battle of Stalingrad, in the Battle of the Kursk Bulge, in the battles for the liberation of Europe. More than 50 Ingushes were presented to the title of Hero of the Soviet Union.
In Ingushetian town of Malgobek in 1942, the victorious march of the German army over the North Caucasus was stopped. In 2007, Malgobek was awarded the honorary title "City of Military Glory" on the initiative of the President of the Republic of Ingushetia M. Zyazikov.
In 1944, the Chechen-Ingush ASSR was liquidated, and the Ingush, together with the Chechens, were evicted to Kazakhstan and Central Asia.Up to a third of Ingushes died in exile. The territory of Ingushetia was divided between Ossetia, the newly created Grozny region.
In 1957 the Chechen-Ingush ASSR was partially restored. The Ingush Prigorodny District, a large part of which was later incorporated into the city of Ordzhonikidze (Vladikavkaz), was left as part of North Ossetia.
In May 1991, the Chechen-Ingush ASSR was renamed the Chechen-Ingush Republic. In the autumn of 1991, Chechnya separated from Ingushetia, the creation of the Chechen Republic was proclaimed, and its president was elected. In December 1991, in a nationwide referendum, the Ingush confirmed that Ingushetia was part of the Russian Federation. On April 26, 1991, the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation adopted the law "On the Rehabilitation of Repressed Peoples," and on June 4, 1992, the law "On the Formation of the Ingush Republic as a part of the Russian Federation."
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